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沈阳翻译公司:法律翻译的常见错误

       法律翻译是翻译中的高端服务,它主要服务律师,外资企业,进出口公司等社会上层群体,质量要求和技术难度都相当高。法律翻译作为法律语言学主要研究内容之一,包括口译和笔译,在国内、国际社会生活中法律翻译都起日益重要的作用。法律翻译工作除了对译员及相关的条件提出较高的要求外,还受制于法律语言本身的特点。法律翻译不同于普通文件翻译,要求较高。很多译员因资历不够,在法律翻译过程中经常出错,主要错误有以下几种:
 
一、拼写或识词错误
书写或识别英文词汇时,将单词拼错,或将外形相近的词汇混淆。
例: defendant (被告), respondent (答辩人,<上诉、离婚等案件的>被告), dependent (附属的,受抚/赡养的;受抚/赡养人)
对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。
译文:A third party who deems himself entitled to an independent claim with regard to the subject matter of both parties has the right to initiate an action.
 
二、语法错误

例: On June 4, 2012, a 29-year-old Canadian porn actor suspected with killing and dismembering (肢解) a Chinese student in Montreal, Canada, was arrested in Berlin, local police authorities confirmed. 当地警方证实,2012年6月4日,涉嫌在加拿大蒙特利尔杀害并肢解一名中国留学生的一名29岁加拿大色情男演员在柏林被捕。
修改要点:with→of。suspect sb. of doing sth.怀疑某人做人事。
 
三、术语错误  
例: 对当事人双方的诉讼标的,第三人认为有独立请求权的,有权提起诉讼。A third party who deems himself entitled to an independent request with regard to the subject matter of both parties has the right to bring a prosecution.
修改要点:request → claim; bring a prosecution (刑事诉讼;控诉方,公诉方)→ initiate an action。
 
四、理解错误

例: In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality: … (e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him.
原译文:在判定对他提出的任何刑事指控时,人人完全平等地有资格享受以下的最低限度的保证:… (戊)讯问或业已讯问对他不利的证人,并使对他有利的证人在与对他不利的证人相同的条件下出庭和受讯问。
修改为:判定对他→判定对任何人; (戊)讯问或业已讯问…受讯问→由本人或让其他人询问对其不利的证人,并使对其有利的证人与对其不利的证人在相同条件下出庭和接受询问。
 
五、表述错误 (语言不地道,用词不当等)

例: Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. (set forth, 阐明,提出)
原译文:人人有权要求一种社会的和国际的秩序, 在这种秩序中, 本宣言所载的权利和自由能获得充分实现。
修改为:人人有权要求一种能充分实现本宣言所载权利和自由的社会和国际秩序。
 
六、过于繁琐( redundant)

例: 人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。
原译文:The people administer state affairs and manage economic, cultural and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the law.
修改提示:汉语擅用排比,英文无此习惯。此处可以将各种“事务”连起来,一气呵成。
修改为:The people administer state, economic, cultural and social affairs through …
 
七、滥用标点 
例: 女职工有权向当地劳动部门提出申诉。受理申诉的部门应当作出决定。
A woman employee has the right to appeal (申诉) to the local labor department, which shall make a decision. (逗号不能删除)
例: 企业和政府有关部门的领导干部,因工作过失给企业和国家造成较大损失的,由政府主管部门或有关上级机关给予行政处分。
原译文:Leading cadres of enterprises and governmental departments concerned, who have caused the enterprises and the state big losses due to work faults, shall be disciplined by the competent government agency or its superior agency.
修改提示:cause sb. sth. 结构不当;定语从句的逗号使用不当。
修改为:Leading cadres of enterprises and governmental departments concerned who have caused big losses to the profit-seeking enterprises and the state owing to their negligence in work shall be disciplined by the competent government agency or its superior agency.
修改说明:(1) cause sb. sth. 结构应当改为cause sth. to sb.结构。
(2) 去掉定语从句的逗号,因为:限制性定语从句起明确的限定作用,在句中不可缺少,否则会影响句子的含义。非限制性定语从句通常起补充说明作用,删除后一般也不影响句子的主要思想;有时相当于一个分句;修饰具有唯一性的名词时,要用非限制性定语从句。例如:
When he was 18, he went to a technical school in London, which was the largest city he had ever seen. (逗号不能删除)
Then he met Mary, who (and she) invited him to a party. (逗号不能删除)

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